Services

Rainbow Pages

The Rainbow Pages Youth Resource Guide was developed by The Family Centre to provide LGBTQ+ youth and the youth-serving community a consolidated guide of the supports available in Edmonton.

The Family Centre would like to thank the participating organizations for supporting the development of this guide, and their on-going service of youth in our community.

To update your organization’s listing, or be added to the guide, please contact: communications@the-family-centre.com

*The acronym LGBTQ+ has been used to represent the acronym LGBTTQQIA meaning Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgendered Two-Spirited Queer Questioning Intersexed Asexual.

**The resources within this guide are intended to meet the needs of a broad audience. Some content is intended for mature youth. Please review the content before sharing resources with youth.

Download this guide as a PDF

ALBERTA GAY STRAIGHT ALLIANCE NETWORK

Alberta GSA is the Alberta chapter of the GSA network of student-run groups that provides a safe place for any and all students to meet and learn about all different orientations, to support each other while working together to end homophobia, and to raise awareness and promote equality for all human beings.

Websites: www.mygsa.ca and www.facebook.com/groups/AlbertaGSANetwork

BULLY FREE ALBERTA

If you’re a victim of bullying or abuse, call trained staff at any time of day, or chat online from noon to 8pm. Online chats and calls to the helpline are anonymous.

Phone: 1-888-456-2323 (Toll Free)

Email: bullyfree.alberta@gov.ab.ca

Website: www.bullyfreealberta.ca

BELOW THE BELT MEN’S PROJECT

Below the Belt is a support and services for males involved in the sex trade.

Drop-in: Tuesdays, 6pm-9pm

Address: #103, 11745 Jasper Ave

Phone: 780-263-2221

Website: www.btbmensproject.wordpress.com

THE CELLAR YOUTH CENTRE

The Cellar is an all-inclusive community youth centre that is open to youth ranging from grade six to grade 12, every Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday from 3pm-5pm. Every Friday we also provide a nutritious meal from 5pm-6pm. We’re all about community at The Cellar, so we’ll likely invite you in the kitchen to lend a hand or learn a few things! The Cellar offers a variety of free programming such as field trips to various hot-spots around Alberta (and occasionally BC), free mentoring, art projects, games and entertainment of all sorts, and so much more. The Cellar is considered a "Safe Space" and all youth are welcome, regardless of beliefs or backgrounds. We’re here to offer holistic care for your ever-changing lives and circumstances. 

"The Cellar is my family. I come here to belong."

     -Kristy, Cellar Youth

Address: 13407-97 St

Phone: 587-987-3928

Email: thecellar@yuedmonton.com

Website: www.yuedmonton.com

COMPASS CENTRE FOR SEXUAL WELLNESS

Counselling and referral based service open to youth who have questions about their sexuality and/or sexual health.

Address: #50, 9912 106 St

Phone: 780-423-3737

Email: info@compasscentre.ca

Website: www.compasscentre.ca

THE CHEW PROJECT: COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH EDUCATION WORKERS’ PROJECT

The CHEW Project, which operates out of the Institute for Sexual Minority Studies and Services, University of Alberta, provides sexual, mental, physical, and social health education and outreach to SGM (sexual and gender minority) youth, with special focus on MSM (males who have sex with males) and trans-spectrum (transgender and gender nonconforming) youth. Through empowerment, knowledge and skill building, and mentoring, CHEW provides youth opportunities to increase awareness and insight into their overall health. Our goal is to use holistic and inclusive approaches to provide youth avenues to grow into resilience as happy, healthy, and hopeful persons. Key emphases include HIV and STI awareness, harm reduction, and prevention; addressing risk behaviours; gender and sexual identity development; coming out, suicide ideation, body image, and depression; and testing and sex positivity.

Phone: 780-492-3740

Email: CHEWproject@ualberta.ca

Website: chewproject.ca

DROP-IN SINGLE SESSION COUNSELLING

FREE professional, private and confidential counselling to individuals, partners and families. Our single session model takes about hone hour and our qualified team can assist with a wide range of issues, such as:

  • Relationship/Family Issues
  • Stress, anxiety and depression
  • Grief and loss
  • LGBTQ (including transgender specific)
  • Addiction and mental health
  • Refugee and newcomer issues

We have seven locations to serve you:

  1. Pride Centre of Edmonton
  2. Canadian Mental Health Association - Edmonton Region
  3. The Family Centre of Northern Alberta
  4. Seniors Association of Greater Edmonton (SAGE)
  5. Boys & Girls Club Big Brothers Big Sisters of Edmonton & Area - Kinsmen Club
  6. Boys & Girls Club Big Brothers Big Sisters of Edmonton & Area - West Club
  7. Edmonton John Howard Society

Visit our website or call for locations, times, and dates:

Website: www.dropinyeg.ca

Phone: 211

Email: info@dropinyeg.ca

EDMONTON POLICE SERVICE SEXUAL MINORITIES LIAISON COMMITTEE

The Edmonton Police Service Sexual Minorities Liaison Committee can support you while you report a crime and help you receive professional and non judgmental police service and support. They also advocate for the inclusion of the sexual and gender minority (LGBTQ) community in all aspects of the Edmonton Police Service. All inquiries are completely confidential and your information will not be shared with the police service without your explicit permission. 

Website: www.facebook.com/groups/EPSSMLC

Email: EPSLGBTQ@yahoo.ca

EDMONTON PUBLIC SCHOOL BOARD

EPSB is proud of its work to support our sexual and gender minority students, staff, and community members through our policies, regulations, and ongoing opportunities for meaningful engagement. This support includes: guidance in supporting Gay/Queer-Straight Alliances, initiation of a Safe Contact program; presentations to staff and parent councils; participation in events such as Pink Shirt Day, Edmonton Pride Festival, and the Provincial GSA Conference; connections to complementary agencies; referrals to outside networks; one-on-one consultations for emergent situations; and more. Students can access EPSB’s resources by contacting Kerry Maguire, Anna Burns, your school’s Safe COntact, GSA/QSA Advisors, or your guidance counsellors.

Contact: Kerry Maguire, Diversity Consultant (kerry.maguire@epsb.ca) or Anna Burn, Diversity Consultant (anna.burn@epsb.ca)

THE FAMILY CENTRE

The Family Centre supports families and individuals of all ages, sexual orientations, gender identities, and cultures. The Family Centre works with youth and families in schools and communities. To find our more information, visit the website.

Address: #20, 9912 106 St

Therapy & Counselling: 780-424-6103, or intake@the-family-centre.com

Education Services: 780-497-7536, or education.services@the-family-centre.com

Website: www.the-family-centre.com

HIV EDMONTON

Myth... You can get HIV by kissing. Busted!! Contact through kissing is not a risk of transmission of HIV. If you have other questions or concerns about HIV or how HIV is transmitted, please conact us. We offer one on one services, referrals to medical support, needle exchange, education, and treatment information. Practice safer sex, condomize, educate yourself and challenge stigma and discrimination! We can go to Zero. Zero new HIV infections, zero stigma and discrimination, and zero AIDS related deaths.

Address: 9702 111 Ave

Phone: 780-488-5742

Toll Free: 1-877-388-5742

Email: contact@hivedmonton.com

Website: www.hivedmonton.com

INCLUSIVE COUNSELLING & CONSULTING PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES, INC. (ICC PSYCH)

ICC Psych provides individual therapy (for children, youth, adults, and seniors), couples therapy, and family therapy. We specialize in supporting sexual and gender minority (LGBTQ) children, youth and families. Our fees reflect the outlined fee scheduled produced by the Psychologists’ Association of Alberta (www.psychologistsassocation.ab.ca). Please contact us directly to inquire about our fees. We cover the following range of counselling issues:

  • Addictions (substance abuse & gambling) 
  • Anxiety, depression, and stress
  • ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)
  • Behavioural interventions
  • Bereavement, grief, and loss
  • Brain injury and developmental disorders
  • Family Systems
  • Gender dysphoria
  • Learning disabilities
  • Parenting supports
  • Relationship issues
  • Sexuality and gender (LGBTQ)
  • Spirituality
  • Transgender supports

Address: #500, 10339 124 St

Phone: 780-420-6555

Email: iccpsychservices@gmail.com

Website: www.iccpsych.com

ISMSS (INSTITUTE FOR SEXUAL MINORITY STUDIES AND SERVICES)

PROVINCIAL GSA CONFERENCE

An educational conference for students and teachers in Alberta who have a GSA/QSA or are interested in starting one in their school. The conference aims to connect, educate, and inspire students and educators to contribute to inclusive, respectful, and safer environments within K-12 schools. The conference alternates each year between Edmonton and Calgary, and is normally held in the third week of November as part of the Province’s Bullying Prevention Awareness Week

EDMONTON GSA ROUNDTABLE

A monthly meeting hosted by iSMSS for students and teachers (K-12) who have a GSA/QSA or who are interested in starting one. The meetings involve various arts-based activities, tips for sustaining GSA;s, presentations from community groups, resource-sharing, and group discussions regarding how to plan events and run meetings. Free pizza and snacks included!

Time: 4:30pm-6:00pm

Date: Third Tuesday of every month of the school year (September-June)

Location: Varied

For meeting updates, sign up for the listserv here.

Facebook group: www.facebook.come/groups.AlbertaGSANetwork/

Phone: 780-492-0772 (iSMSS Main Office)

Website: www.ismss.ualberta.ca or www.ismss.ualberta.ca/familiesresilience

KIDS HELP PHONE

Anonymous, confidential and on-judgemental phone/web counselling available 24/7. For ages 20 and under. They also have a free smart phone app called "Always There."

Phone: 1-800-668-6868 (Toll Free)

Website: www.kidshelpphone.ca

THE LANDING SOCIETY FOR GENDER AND SEXUAL DIVERSITY

A service at the University of Alberta offering support for gender and sexual diversity, striving to promote gender equity on a broad scale, and advocating for the safety and acceptance of individuals of all genders and sexualities in campus life. Services include weekly drop-in hours open from September through April (Monday to Wednesday, 10am-2pm; Thursday 10am-6pm), a weekly peer support group for U of A students called Rainbow Peers, a monthly all ages trans meet-up group, and resource/referral library. All services are free of charge and open to the public unless otherwise specified. 

Address: 0-68A Lower Level, Students’ Union Building, University of Alberta

Phone: 780-492-4949

Email: thelanding@su.ualberta.ca

Website: www.su.ualberta.ca/thelanding

 

PFLAG EDMONTON

A monthly support group for parents, guardians, caregivers, friends and loved ones in the lives of sexual and gender minority children, youth and adults. PFLAG also supports those who are 18 years and older that identify as a sexual and/or gender minority.

Date: Last Wednesday of each month (no group in December)

Time: 6:30pm - 8:30pm

Location: Spirit West United Church, 7003 - 199 St

Please note: Wheelchair accessible, free parking, must be at least 18 years or older.

Email: iccpsychservices@gmail.com

PFLAG ST. ALBERT

Meets on the second Tuesday of the month at Bellerose School

Address: 49 Giroux Road

Phone: 780-990-6518

PRIDE CENTRE OF EDMONTON

The Pride Centre offers a drop-in centre, information/resources, programming, an LGBTQ library, free counselling, internet access, outreach programs, and youth programs.

Address: 10608 105 Ave

Phone: 780-488-3234

Email: youth@pridecentreofedmonton.org

Website: www.pridecentreofedmonton.org

OUTLOUD FOUNDATION FOR LGBTQ COMMUNITY SUPPORTS AND SERVICES

A community group for LGBTQ or questioning youth aged 13-24 in St. Albert and area that meets on the first and third Tuesday of each month. We look to support our youth and connect them to each other and to those who support them in and around this community. Our group meetings are 2 hours long, with interactive games, activities, and team building skills to promote relationships and build self-esteem. No cost to the youth.

Address: 43 St Thomas Street, St Albert 

Phone: 780-990-6518

Email: outloud@outloudstalbert.ca

Website: www.outloudstalbert.ca

SEXUAL ASSAULT CENTRE OF EDMONTON

Provides no fee counselling and supports individuals of all ages and genders who have been impacted by sexual violence. The Sexual Assault Centre also has a 24hr crisis line for people who have been impacted by sexual violence.

24 Hour Crisis Line: 780-423-4121

Phone: 780-423-4102

Email: info@sace.ab.ca

Website: www.sace.ab.ca

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS (STI) CLINIC

Provides free and confidential testing and treatment for STIs, HIV, and blood borne pathogens. Available to all ages 14 years and over. Alberta Health Care Insurance is not required. For testing, this service operates on a walk-in basis ONLY. Appointments are NOT booked for routine testing.

Address: Room 3B20, 11111 Jasper Ave

24 Hour STI/HIV Information Line: 1-800-772-2437 (Toll Free)

Phone: 780-342-2300

Hours of Operation:

  • Monday: 8:30am - 5pm
  • Tuesday: 9:45am - 5pm
  • Wednesday: 8:30am - 6pm
  • Thursday: 8:30am - 6pm
  • Friday: 8:45am -5pm

THE SUPPORT NETWORK

One-on-one phone support is available 24 hours a day to discuss any crisis issues or concerns.

Address: #400, 10025 106 St

Phone: 780-482-HELP (4357)

Email: admin@thesupportnetwork.com

Website: www.thesupportnetwork.com

YOUTH EMPOWERMENT AND SUPPORT SERVICES (YESS)

YESS provides residential services along with supports, resources, and referrals to youth from difficult realities. Youth between the ages of 15 to 21 are able to build a life and employable skills, access cultural and outreach services, and build safe and healthy relationships so they can advocate for themselves and move toward independence.

Address: 9310 82 Ave

Phone: 780-468-7070

Email: yess@yess.org

Website: www.yess.org

YOUTHSPACE.CA

Youthspace.ca is an online support network for youth (up to 30 years old). They offer emotional support and crisis intervention via Chat, Text, Email Counselling, and a Forum. The site is a non-judgmental space where you can voice your thoughts and get free, confidential support from a compassionate volunteer.

Website: www.youthspace.ca

ALBERTATRANS.ORG

Provides information and resources for transgender individuals.

Email: dentedbluemercedes@gmail.com

Website: www.albertatrans.org

EDMONTON TRANS MASCULINE COLLECTIVE

Edmonton Trans Masculine Collective is a group of trans masculine, non-binary, and masculine centre of identified people who hope to promote positive community building and networking opportunities for trans masculine identified individuals. The primary means of connecting to the network is through Facebook and/or email. Individuals can gain access to the private Facebook group by emailing us. We carefully screen who gains access to protect the identities and safety of our members.

Email: edm.transmasculine@gmail.com

Website: http://ttiq.ca/etmc

THE SELF MADE MEN

Education and awareness directly related to transgender males. **Please be advised that some content may be intended for mature youth.**

Email: theselfmademen@gmail.com

Website: www.theselfmademen.tumblr.com and www.theselfmademen.com

TRANS EQUALITY SOCIETY OF ALBERTA (TESA)

TESA’s mission is to be a witness to and a voice for matters concerning trans-identified Albertans. TESA advocates for equal rights for all Albertans; promoting, understanding, and inclusion through presentations, media interviews; and other activities.

Email: info@tesaonline.org

Website: www.tesaonline.org

Twitter: @TESAonlineorg

TTIQ (TRANSGENDER, TRANSSEXUAL, INTERSEX, OR ARE QUESTIONING)

TTIQ Is a peer gender support group that meets at the Pride Centre of Edmonton. It’s open to anyone on the gender-variant spectrum, along with their friends, families, and allies. TTIQ has a meeting time for youth immediately before the main meeting. 

Phone: 780-488-3234 (Pride Centre of Edmonton)

Email: ttiqedmonton@gmail.com

Website: www.ttiq.ca and ttiq.ca/etmc

TRANS YOUTH FAMILY ALLIES, INC.

A website that provides support and education for transgender individuals and their families.

Phone: 1-888-462-8932 (Toll Free)

Email: info@imatyfa.org

Website: www.imatyfa.org/resources/youth-resources

CAMP FYREFLY
A sexual and gender minority (LGBTQ) youth leadership retreat held each summer in Edmonton, Calgary, Saskatchewan, and Ontario. The camp helps youth develop the leadership skills and personal resiliency necessary for them to become agents for positive change in their schools, families, and communities. Camp fYrefly provides free in-school activity-based workshops.
Camp
Email: fYrefly@ualberta.ca
Website: www.fYrefly.ualberta.ca
School
Email: finsedmonton@ualberta.ca
Website: www.fYrefly.ualberta.ca/fYreflyinschools

EDMONTON PRIDE FESTIVAL
The ten-day Edmonton Pride Festival celebrates the unity and diversity of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans-identified and queer community (LGBTQ) and its allies. Festival events typically include art, theatre, parties, family events, and the annual Pride Parade through Old Strathcona.
Email: info@edmontonpride.ca
Website: www.edmontonpride.ca

iHUMAN YOUTH SOCIETY
iHuman Youth Society engages youth 12-24 years old to explore their artistic talents in a safe environment. Youth will need to register as members in the society. Registration is free.
Address: 9635 102A Ave
Phone: 780-421-8811
Email: info@ihuman.org
Website: www.ihumanyouthsociety.org

IMPERIAL SOVEREIGN COURT OF THE WILD ROSE

Non-profit association that offers a John M. Kerr Memorial Scholarship for LGBTQ youth entering post-secondary studies. For information on the scholarship, please email ISCWR.

Email: communications@iscwr.ca

Website: www.iscwr.ca

TEAM EDMONTON

A society that promotes sport and recreation opportunities to the LGBTQ community year round. Some of the activities include boot camp, volleyball, dragon boat racing, badminton, yoga, swimming, choir, and meditation.

Email: president@teamedmonton.ca

Website: www.teamedmonton.ca

MCDOUGALL UNITED CHURCH

Affirming congregation welcomes people of all sexual orientations. Sunday services at 10:30am. Affirm group meets monthly with activities and support to LGBTQ folk. All are welcome.

Address: 10025 101 St

Phone: 780-428-1818

Email: info@mcdougallunited.com

Website: www.mcdougallunited.com

SOUTHMINSTER-STEINHAUER UNITED CHURCH

Southminster-Steinhauer United Church is a spiritual community where people seek to be about having a safe place to BELONG, not worrying about what to BELIEVE. This is a community where people of all ages, sexual orientations and gender identities are welcome and affirmed and where the spiritual journey of each person is nurtured and supported. We gather Sundays at 10am and offer an Affirm Lunch on the second Sunday of each month for the LGBTQ community and their allies.

Address: 10740 19 Ave

Phone: 780-435-2028

Website: www.smsuc.com

ST. PAUL’S UNITED CHURCH

We are proud partners in pursuing justice and understanding for the LGBTQ+ community. We are a vibrant church with many opportunities for nurture and to get involved. We have regular gatherings that welcome LGBTQ+ youth and families, as well as Sunday worships. St. Paul’s United Church sponsors Faith Lift Campus Ministry, a safe place for LGBTQ+ staff and students at the University of Alberta (office located at SUB 242).

Address: 11526 76 Ave

Phone: 780-436-1555

Website: www.stpaulsunited.org

UNITARIAN CHURCH OF EDMONTON

The Unitarian Church of Edmonton is a community comprised of all orientations and gender identities. We have long been allies of the LGBTQ community, providing meeting space for some of Edmonton’s first gay dances back in the 1970s, and providing Services of Union for couples until same sex marriage became legal. We are a liberal religious community that honours freedom of belief and holds as our first principle, "affirming the worth and dignity of every person."

Address: 10804 119 St

Phone: 780-454-8073

Email: chadmin@uce.ca

Website: www.uce.ca

WESTWOOD UNITARIAN CONGREGATION

A community committed to being open to all, without regard to sexual orientation, race, gender, age, ability, or income. Westwood is a compassionate community of free religious thought, inviting all people to rest, grow, and serve the world.

Address: 11135 65 Ave

Phone: 780-434-5819

Email: info@westwoodunitarian.ca

Website: www.westwoodunitarian.ca

AUTOSTRADDLE

Online magazine for LGBTQ women. **Please be advised that some content may be intended for mature youth.**

Email: info@autostraddle.com

Website: www.autostraddle.com

EGALE

Canada’s only national charity promoting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans (LGBT) human rights through research, education and community engagement. Egale Canada is our national LGBT human rights organization: advancing equality, diversity, education, and justice.

Website: www.egale.ca

Phone: 1-888-204-7777

EVERYONE IS GAY

Everyone Is Gay works to improve the lives of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning/Queer (LGBTQ) youth using a three-pronged approach: providing honest advice to these youth while keeping them laughing, talking to students across the country in an effort to create caring, compassionate school environments; and working with parents of LGBTQ kids to help foster an ongoing dialogue and deeper understanding.

Founded in 2010 by Kristin Russo and Dannielle Owens-Reid, the organization grew rapidly and began touring high school and college campuses in 2011. The Parents Project, a first-of-its-kind digital presence for parents of LGBTQ youth, was founded in 2013, and Dannielle and Kristin co-authored This is a Book for Parents of Gay Kids in 2014.

Email: info@everyoneisgay.com

Website: www.everyoneisgay.com

GAY EDMONTON

Gay Edmonton is a 100% free, not-for-profit online resource for the LGBTQ+ community of Edmonton and surrounding area. It features information on local resources, support groups, history, bars & pubs, news, events, and more. Gay Edmonton is also home to the Edmonton Pride hall of Fame, which began in June 2014 to recognize and celebrate the most important figures, leaders, supporters, and allies of Edmonton’s  LGBTQ+ community.

Website: www.yegpride.ca

I DIG YOUR GIRLFRIEND

I Dig Your Girlfriend is a queer/LGTBQ Edmonton-based website that has writers from all over western Canada. Gender identity, sexual orientation, equality issues and community are among the different topics that are shared on their site. IDYGF also has a youth and resources section on their site. Guest writers and bloggers are welcome, regardless of age, to share their thoughts, stories, and creativity. **Please be advised that some content may be intended for mature youth.**

Facebookwww.facebook.com/IDigYourGirlfriend

Tumblrwww.idigyourgirlfriend.tumblr.com

Email: info@idigyourgirlfriend.com

Website: idigyourgirlfriend.com/lgtbq-youth/

WE ARE THE YOUTH

A place to share your story and read about the journeys of other LGTBQ individuals.

Website: www.wearetheyouth.org

Cisgender - When a person’s gender identity matches their body and sex assigned at birth.

Coming Out - The process of coming to terms with one’s sexual orientation and/or gender identity and disclosing it to others. Others typically assume heterosexuality and fixed gender states that fit into the binary of Female and Male, therefore, coming out is an ongoing process.

FTM - A person, who was assigned the female sex at birth, but identifies as male. Also, trans man or transman. FTM is the acronyn for Female-to-Male.

Gender Identity - A person’s deep internal feeling of whether they identify as being female, male, something in between, genderqueer, or something other.

Gender-normative - Refers to when people conform to what is considered culturally appropriate feminine and masculine behaviour.

Heteronormative - The belief that heterosexuality is the "normal" sexual orientation. Also refers to the belief that female and male gender roles are fixed.

Homophobia - Feelings of rage, hate, and disapproval of homosexuality. Homophobia can be manifested in numerous ways, such as verbally, emotionally, and through physical attacks.

LGBTQ - Acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, and queer, questioning.

MTF - A person, who was assigned the male sex at birth, but identifies as female. Also, trans woman or transwoman. MTF is the acronym for Male-to-Female.

Pansexual - When a person is sexually, romantically, and emotionally attracted to people of all gender identities and sexes.

Queer - An umbrella term for LGBTQ. Also a term of self-identification for people who do not identify with binary terms that describe sexual and gender identities.

Sexual Identity - How a person identifies whom they are sexually and romantically attracted to (e.g. lesbian, gay, bisexual, heterosexual, etc.)

Transgender - An umbrella term used to describe people whose gender identity does not match with the sex they were assigned at birth. This term can encompass those who identify as transsexual, genderqueer, cross-dresser, and whose gender identities challenge gender norms.

Transphobia - Feelings of rage, hate, and disapproval towards transgender or people who are gender-nonconforming. Transphobia can be manifested in numerous ways, such as verbally, emotionally, and through physical attacks.

Two-Spirit - This term is culturally specific to the North American Aboriginal community and refers to queer Aboriginal people who identify as both a male and female spirit. This term is not exclusive to gender identity, and can also refer to sexual orientation.

Reference

Abramovich, A. (2014). Young, Queer and Trans, Homeless, and Besieged: A Critical Action Research Study of How Policy and Culture Create Oppressive Conditions for LGBTQ Youth in Toronto’s Shelter System (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Toronto.